What Causes Leg Swelling?

Leg inflammation or leg edema is a frequent medical malady. The main reason of leg inflammation should be discovered and healed. It should not be pushed aside nor be dealt with liquid pills except if the cause has been identified. There are six biggest causes of leg swelling.

The major source of leg swelling is chronic venous insufficiency. Vein disease or vein disorders happen twice as often as coronary artery disease, three times more frequently than peripheral arterial disease, or PAD, and almost five times more widespread than congestive heart failure.

Vein disease has six names:

  • Venous stasis
  • Varicose veins
  • Chronic venous insufficiency
  • Venous hypertension
  • Venous reflux disease

Lymphedema
In this health issue the veins in the legs suffer a loss of their power to transfer the used blood back up and out of the legs to the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys to be filtered, replenished with essential nutrients and oxygen, and transported back out to the body. When this occurs, high pressure occurs in your leg veins. This high pressure results in discharging of fluid and other blood components into the leg outside of the blood vessels. When the veins are not able to effectively deliver the blood out of the legs with each heart beat, your heart pumps blood into your legs under increased and higher pressures. This can cause a generalized engorgement of the veins in your legs and accompanying this will come added leakage.

In addition, the blood in your legs ends up being rather toxic since it has not been cleaned by your kidneys. The quantity of oxygen in the blood lowers below normal. The nutrition is used up, and the waste from your legs gather in the uncirculated blood in your legs. This builds a generalized harmful state in your legs. This “toxic” blood makes your legs ill and creates inflammation. All these things result in swelling.
Swelling from veins is best early in the day and worse during the night time. When you lay down at night the blood finally comes back out of your legs and it is then filtered by your kidneys, nutrients is replenished by your intestines, your lungs add oxygen, your liver processes the blood, and your heart is able to pump the good healthy blood back out to the legs which are no longer engorged, the pressure in the legs is back to normal, and the blood is now good and healthy. By the morning your legs ought to seem at their very best and the cycle will begin again once you stand up and gravity alongside damaged venous circulation hinders the blood from returning again.

Congestive Heart Failure
The second most frequent reason for swelling to the legs is congestive heart failure. Over the years, before vein disease was understood very well, congestive heart failure was felt to be the reason behind all leg swelling until it can be medically backed differently, thus multiple patients with leg swelling some time ago and even now will take several different cardiac assessments to eliminate heart failure as a root cause. Definitely venous disease is considered the most common underlying cause and most people have a normal cardiac workup.

In the patients with congestive heart failure, the common signs or symptoms is generally difficulty of breathing. While resting many have difficulty of breathing on exertion and when they lie down flat. This is known as orthopnea and it frequently results in these people having to rest with their head elevated because once they lay totally horizontal it allows significant breathing difficulties.

Congestive heart failure is largely a consequence of one or both of two underlying health disorders; these are coronary artery disease or clots in the arteries and undiagnosed or untreated high arterial blood pressure or “hypertension”.

Kidney Failure
The third most frequent reason for leg swelling or leg edema is kidney failure. Progressed kidney failure will hinder the body’s ability to clear itself of surplus fluid resulting in fluid retention and leg swelling. It can also be correlated with undiagnosed arterial hypertension which is much more widespread in persons with diabetes.

Liver Failure
The fourth major cause of leg edema or leg swelling is liver failure. This could be a little bit more tricky, but when the liver is not operating very well the required protein in your bloodstream drops to dangerously low levels which then may cause leakage of fluid out of the vascular system and into the tissue, resulting in swelling in your legs or even abdomen. Most of these patients frequently have considerable swelling in their abdomen as well.

Thyroids
The fifth common root cause of leg edema is low thyroid or hypothyroidism. This is known as pretibial myxedema. This is also a little complicated, but once your thyroid hormones decline to an unhealthy level and is still there for a considerable amount of time your overall rate of metabolism declines very low and this contributes to swelling in your legs.

Lymphedema
Lastly, Lymphedema is where vessels often called lymphatics get damaged or blocked for many reasons, contributing to the incapability of your body to clear fluids from your legs. Many times this is as a result of lasting neglected venous insufficiency, but can even be resulting from trauma, operation, and much less likely cancer.

Regardless of the underlying cause, leg swelling is never natural, and a reason needs to be determined and dealt with accordingly. To identify the trigger of swelling in your legs, call Dr. Morgan in Houston at the Lone Star Vein Center. We specialize in treating vein disease using non-invasive and painless procedures such as VNUS Closure to return the health of your legs. Schedule an appointment and contact (281) 292-0121 to find out more.

Jewelry from 3000 BC Egypt to the 21st Century

Egypt

The use of gold jewelry can be dated back to Egypt 3000 BC. Gold was the preferred metal for jewelry making during ancient times. It was rare, it was easy to work with, and it never tarnished.

Magnificent bracelets, pendants, necklaces, rings, armlets, earrings, collars, and head ornaments were all produced in ancient Egypt, the land of the Pharaohs. In 1922 Howard Carter’s excavations led to the discovery of Tutankhamun’s tomb and many gold artifacts, all showing the art work of ancient Egypt.

Greece

In ancient Greece, gold beads in the shape of shells, flowers and beetles were very common. In Northern Greece beautiful necklaces and earrings have been excavated from burial.

By 300 BC the Greeks were using gems such as emeralds, garnets, amethysts and pearls. They also created colored glass stones and enamel stones. Carved agate cameos and gold filigree work were widely made.

Italy

The Italian Etruscans produced granulated textured gold work. They made very large, necklaces, bracelets and earrings. They were also known for producing hollow gold pendants that were filled with perfume. Even today the Italians are still known for the quality gold jewelry.

Rome

The Romans used 18 and 24 carat gold for their coins. Coinage gold was readily available so it was popular with craftsmen for decorative jewelry. Over 2000 years ago the Romans were using sapphires, emeralds, garnets, and amber in their jewelry.
Europe.

During the 13th century the Medieval Sumptuary Laws were enacted which put a cap on luxurious jewelry and clothing. The town folk of France, banned from wearing girdles made from pearls or any other gemstone.

They were also banged from wearing gold or silver. Similar laws existed in England banning artisans from wearing gold and silver. These laws show how fine jewelry had spread beyond nobility to the town folk.

For as long as mankind has existed gems and jewels have been used as token of ones love for another. While many pieces of jewelry existed adorned with fine gems and made from precious metals, there was also some very good fake jewelry.

True gemstones and pearls originated in the east and they were bought mainly by the Italians. The Italian merchants then sold the jewelry to the Europeans.

High quality glass imitations were often used and sold with the intent to deceive. These high quality glass stones were often used in the Royal funeral robes and in children’s jewelry.

Valued more than gemstones, were the flawless, round, natural white pearls. South India provided some of the finest pearls. The Italians were able to make quality imitation glass gems and pearls that could only be identified by a gemologist.

There is historical proof that recipes for false pearls existed as far back as 1300. White powdered glass was mixed with albumen and snail slime to produce imitation pearls.

Earrings and Dress Jewelry

During the 17th century woman always wore earrings, whether they were dressed or undressed. It was very acceptable to wear faux pearls and paste gem earrings during the day saving fine diamond jewelry and gem jewelry for evening attire.

Dress ornamentation decreased in size. Sleeves or skirts were often decorated with matching brooches.

During the 16th it was very fashionable to wear large quantities of pearls. Both jewelry to clothing accessories were adorned with pearls.

During the 17th century Jaquin of Paris patented a method of making fake pearls. Hollow blown glass balls were coated with varnish mixed with iridescent ground fish scales. The hollow balls were then filled with wax to strengthen them. This discovery made Paris the main producer of faux pearls for well over 200 years.

Paste is a compound of glass containing white lead oxide and potash. Paste jewelry was very common in the later part of the 17th century. The highest quality and most long lasting paste jewelry was produced after 1734 by Georges Strass.

Paris lead the production of faux gems [paste] and faux pearls. Just about any kind of fake gem could be made, including fake opals.

After 1760 the production of fake jewelery spread to London and to Birmingham. During the industrial revolution steel was produced in large quantities so it was easily available. It was ues for setting marcasite and jasper ware cameos. Glass and Wedgwood porcelain paste cameos were made in English factories and were also very popular.

The fashion from this era also included ornate shoe buckles of paste, steel and tin, elaborate paste jewel buttons, as well as semi precious for day wear.

Empire Jewelry

In 1804 Napoleon emerged as Emperor of France, resulting in a revival of jewelry and fashion as a new court of pomp.
‘Joailliers’ worked fine jewelry and ‘bijoutiers’ used less precious materials.

The members of the new French imperial family had the former French royal family gems re-set into the latest neo-classical style. The new trends soon found their way to Europe, particularly England. The main influence for design was the Greek and Roman.

Parures and Cameos

Parures were a matching suite of coordinating precious gems which could include a necklace, a comb, a tiara, a diadem, a bandeau, a pair of bracelets, pins, rings, drop earrings or and cluster stud earrings and possibly a belt clasp.

A full parure consisted of a minimum of four pieces. A demi parure consisted of three or less pieces. Both Josephine and Napoleon’s second wife had magnificent parures.

Once Napoleon’s cameo decorated coronation crown was seen, cameos became the rage. Cameos were carved from hard stone, conch shells and even from Wedgwood porcelain.

Victorian Jewelry

In 1837 when Queen Victoria came to the throne jewelry was romantic and nationalistic. It focused on European folk art, which later influenced the Arts and Crafts Movement. Until mid century most western jewelry came from Europe, with some jewelry being produced in North America and Australia.

Mass production of mid Victorian jewelry in Birmingham, Germany and Providence, Rhode Island resulted in lower jewelry standards. Victorian women rebelled when they saw some the poor quality of much of this machine made jewelry.

Woman rebelled by wearing no jewelry at all, or buying from the emerging artist craftsman. Some jewelers like Tiffany recognized a niche market and began to make fine jewelry of a very high standard, opening shops in main European cities.

Mourning Jewelry

During the Victorian era mourning jewelry was very fashionable. The initial months of mourning were unadorned by jewelry of any kind. As the mourning rituals increased, mourning jewelry developed as a fashion item. Queen Victorian wore a great deal of jet mourning jewelry after Prince Albert’s death.

Jet from Whitby, North of England was set into mourning pieces. All types of material that were black were used and almost all included a lock of the dead loved one’s hair. Hair was also plaited, braided or twisted very tightly until it became hard and thread like.

Arts and Crafts Jewelry

During the 1870s the Arts and Crafts movement evolved as a reaction to mass produced shoddy goods and inferior machine made products which were a result of the industrial revolution.

William Morris and John Ruskin were both leaders of the arts and crafts movement in England. They promoted simple Arts and Crafts of designs based on floral, primitive or Celtic forms worked as wallpapers, furniture and jewelry.

The polished stones used in Arts and Crafts jewelry gave a medieval, simpler, gentler, tooled hand made look and feel to items.

Art Nouveau

The Art Nouveau followed the arts and crafts movement resulting in a new jewelry look. The movement began in Paris and its influence went throughout the Western world. Art nouveau jewelry had curves, sinuous organic lines of romantic and imaginary dreaminess.

It was very ethereal turning into winged bird and flower forms. French, René Lalique was the master goldsmith of the era of Art Nouveau producing exquisite one off pieces. Today, the Art Nouveau style is still admired, sought after, and copied.

Pearls

Various combinations of pearl necklaces come in and out of fashion with regularity so pearls too are a must. Today pearls are still a wardrobe essential. Both faux pearls and cultured pearls are very affordable today.

Since the opening of trade with China in the 1990s, many pearls are imported from China dropping the price to about 1/3 of what it was prior to China entering the market.

The Japanese have suffered disease in their pearl beds as well as facing competition and are finding it hard to compete with China’s prices.

Pearl necklaces and pearl earrings can lift a complexion and bring light and radiance to the face taking years off a woman whatever her age. They have been a wardrobe staple for centuries, and a wedding attire tradition.

Cultured pearls have become very affordable, and faux pearls are very cheap and the quality can be excellent. Currently Pearls are a very “hot” fashion statement and with the modern twist of being interspaced on gold wire or floating on special synthetic cord they are essential to the millennium look.

Cocktail Jewelry

During the 1920s Lalique mass produced and designed high quality glass jewelry. Fake, or costume jewellery was sometimes then called cocktail jewelry.

Costume or Cocktail jewelry was greatly influenced by designers such as Coco Chanel, and Elsa Shiparelli as well as a host of other designers. These two designers were particularly known for encouraging clients to mix their fine jewelry and costume jewelry. Both designers offered imagination and fun and both often sported fabulous fakes.

In the late 1930s Napier of the USA was at the forefront of manufacturing fake cocktail jewelry offer glamour and escapism. Today, Napier still produces excellent contemporary costume pieces.

Hollywood Influence

By the 1940s and 1950s American culture was very dominant in Europe. The influence of movie films and the prominence of film stars set the fashion stage for womens make-up, hair and wardrobe.

People wanted copies of outfits and jewelry worn by the actresses. Women believed that the glamour of Hollywood would rub off on them if they dressed and looked like the glamorous Hollywood actresses.

During the Second World War metals were rationed, halting the production of fine jewelry. Quality costume jewelry picked up the now defunct fine jewelry market. Costume jewelry flourished becoming an acceptable alternative to fine jewelry.
1980’s Television Influences Jewelry

During the 1980s with the evolution of glitzy television soaps such as Dynasty and Dallas, costume jewelry once again became a “hot” fashion statement. With over 250 million viewers, it didn’t take long for costume jewelry to be reborn.

Glitz and sparkle by day was not only acceptable, it became the norm. Earrings grew to an unbelievable size, as did other pieces of jewelry. By the 1990s this sparkly dazzling jewelry phenomena was dead, replace with tiny real diamond studs or a fine stud pearls.

21st Century Jewelry

For the 21st century women believe a mix is good. Fine jewelry combined with costume jewelry are wardrobe essentials. The sophisticated women of this century know what they want from their jewelry and how to wear it to make their fashion statement.

They recognize that costume jewelry can liven up their wardrobe. The types and quality of costume jewelry has grown enormously. Today one can purchase what is classified as fine costume jewelry which is usually plated at least seven times with 10 22 ct gold.

Swarovski crystal set in gold are common accessories, and cubic zirconium, man’s imitation diamond, can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of real diamonds allowing every women to add diamond styled jewelry to their wardrobe.

Ciro, Adrian Buckley, Butler and Wilson, Swarovski Crystal Jewelry Napier, Joan Rivers, Joan Collins, Christian Dior, California Crystal, Property of A Lady and of course Kenneth J Lane to name just a few continue to produce high quality fashion jewelry for today’s women.

Costume jewelry can take you from the board room to a night out of dining and dancing to your most intimate evening. It can make you look your best for your wedding, or a day at the beach. You can make Your Fashion Statement With Costume Jewelry!

Choosing the Appropriate Authentic Designer Handbag For You

It can be a little intimidating to try and choose the perfect bag from amongst the multitude of choices of luxury designer handbags available on the market today.

It is no wonder that so many questions arises concerning real designer handbags, purses and even luggage in regards to their appropriate usage. Believe it or not, one of the most discussed questions is on what type of designer handbag to buy for a job interview.

A key point to understand here is that function comes first, then style, when it comes to attending a job interview or even business power lunch. A handbag that is functional should easily be able to contain important documents such as your resume or portfolio, reference letters and even your business cards without damaging them. All the while your designer bag should also demonstrate your unique sense of style. Depending on personal preference, many women do without a luxury designer handbag all together and carry a briefcase in its stead.

Points to remember when choosing an authentic designer handbag for an important job interview are:

1. Pick a functional bag that has multiple interior pockets that can store your most important items such as pens, mobile phone, business cards and keys. This way you do not have to pour out all the contents of your bag or desperately rummage around your bag with your hand to find a particular item. The worse thing to do is look disorganized simply because you are not aware of where everything is in your handbag.

2. Your luxury designer handbag should be an adequate size which will allow you to carry your resume without having to fold it when placed inside your bag.

3. A hand bag with some sort of zipper, magnetic appendage or Velcro greatly reduces the chance that the contents of your bag will accidentally fall out during the course of your interview.

4. Make sure to match the color of your designer bag to your attire so that you look presentable to the interviewer during your job application.

5. You do not want to appear too casual looking when attending an interview so try to avoid cotton or nylon handbags. The best choice would be a black or brown leather handbag.

6. It does not matter how trendy your authentic designer handbag is, it will not pass a visible test if there are unsightly blotches or stains on the exterior of the bags. Keep it clean!

Something to contemplate when searching for a stylish designer evening handbag:

If you are wondering about this matter, the most excellent place to see the most current and most popular evening handbags are from celebrities during large award ceremonies or opening events for movies and business establishments. You will easily find the most popular styles of evening handbags which range from trendy clutches to stylish drawstring sacks.

The particular style of luxury handbag you pick should allow sufficient space for your money, ID, lipstick, & keys. A slightly larger bag may be required if you need to carry your phone or digital camera. Moreover, your evening handbag should complement your evening attire. A simple rule of thumb is that if your dress is a black color you could choose a smaller sized purse that is completely black or has black trimmings. Another choice would be to pick a more vibrant color such as red, silver or gold to further accent your entire outfit. The tip here is to think of your evening bag as an added accessory such as a piece of jewellery as opposed to a necessity. Real designer evening handbags are available in many designs which included crochet, embroidered, silk, lace, beaded, satin, sequins, velvet and jewel-encrusted designs which made to match any type of outfit you may have on. With some diligent searching you will most certainly find the perfect match for your evening.

Things to consider when looking for a good designer handbag for traveling purposes:

The number one factor to consider is safety when looking for a travel bag. This is not only referring to the safety of the people you are travelling with or yourself, but also the safe keeping of your passport, travel documents, personal belongings and currency. A travel designer handbag should contain your most valued travel items such as credit cards, passport, hotel key, traveler checks and other forms of travel ID. A travel handbag should be designed with strong, secure straps, inner storage and magnetic or zippered closures. A good number of vacation travelers will even carry a money pouch hidden beneath their clothes to further deter would-be thieves.

Tips for spotting real designer handbags before buying them:

In large metropolitan fashion capitals such as Paris, London, LA, New York, Madrid or Toronto it may seem like it would be simple to find an authentic handbag but looks can be deceiving. Unfortunately, the uncontrolled sale of fake handbags is an easy profit for street sellers and flea market merchants who really do not care who they victimize to make some quick cash. If you have bought a designer brand name handbag in any of these cities from a street vendor, chances are that it is not an original. The actual location of the sale should the first red flag you should be aware of when trying to spot an authentic designer handbag. Some quick tips on spotting fake merchandise:

1. Take a really close look at the design. You should get some sense that it is not real just by looking at it. If you think about it, the high end designer make high quality handbags so you can usually spot bad quality imitations just by looking at them. Check the inner stitching and smell or feel the material. A real designer handbag will appear almost near perfect. The colors of the bag will be consistent, the inner lining and the stitching will be free of any visible flaws. Furthermore, an engraved or imprinted designer brand logo should be visible somewhere on or inside the handbag itself.

2. Request proof of authentication such as receipts or serial numbers. The most expensive designer handbags are always accompanied authenticity cards. The authenticity card will showcase the company brand logo and usually include some sort of serial number or a magnetic strip registered to the actual designer itself. Make sure that you ask to see these important pieces of information before you decide to buy it.

3. If the price is too good to be true, it usually is. If a brand name handbag were that cheap every person on the street would own one.

Choosing the appropriate authentic designer handbag is not rocket science but there are crucial matters that one needs to consider before purchasing one. Now that you have some adequate knowledge of finding the right luxury designer handbags for your ever increasing wardrobe go out and buy one. Just keep in mind that there are proper real designer handbags for all types of life real life situations.

It can be a little intimidating to try and choose the perfect bag from amongst the multitude of choices of luxury designer handbags available on the market today.

It is no wonder that so many questions arises concerning real designer handbags, purses and even luggage in regards to their appropriate usage.

Believe it or not, one of the most discussed questions is on what type of designer handbag to buy for a job interview.

A key point to understand here is that function comes first, then style, when it comes to attending a job interview or even business power lunch. A handbag that is functional should easily be able to contain important documents such as your resume or portfolio, reference letters and even your business cards without damaging them. All the while your designer bag should also demonstrate your unique sense of style. Depending on personal preference, many women do without a luxury designer handbag all together and carry a briefcase in its stead.

Points to remember when choosing an authentic designer handbag for an important job interview are:

1. Pick a functional bag that has multiple interior pockets that can store your most important items such as pens, mobile phone, business cards and keys. This way you do not have to pour out all the contents of your bag or desperately rummage around your bag with your hand to find a particular item. The worse thing to do is look disorganized simply because you are not aware of where everything is in your handbag.

2. Your luxury designer handbag should be an adequate size which will allow you to carry your resume without having to fold it when placed inside your bag.

3. A hand bag with some sort of zipper, magnetic appendage or Velcro greatly reduces the chance that the contents of your bag will accidentally fall out during the course of your interview.

4. Make sure to match the color of your designer bag to your attire so that you look presentable to the interviewer during your job application.

5. You do not want to appear too casual looking when attending an interview so try to avoid cotton or nylon handbags. The best choice would be a black or brown leather handbag.

6. It does not matter how trendy your authentic designer handbag is, it will not pass a visible test if there are unsightly blotches or stains on the exterior of the bags. Keep it clean!

Something to contemplate when searching for a stylish designer evening handbag:

If you are wondering about this matter, the most excellent place to see the most current and most popular evening handbags are from celebrities during large award ceremonies or opening events for movies and business establishments. You will easily find the most popular styles of evening handbags which range from trendy clutches to stylish drawstring sacks.

The particular style of luxury handbag you pick should allow sufficient space for your money, ID, lipstick, & keys. A slightly larger bag may be required if you need to carry your phone or digital camera. Moreover, your evening handbag should complement your evening attire. A simple rule of thumb is that if your dress is a black color you could choose a smaller sized purse that is completely black or has black trimmings. Another choice would be to pick a more vibrant color such as red, silver or gold to further accent your entire outfit. The tip here is to think of your evening bag as an added accessory such as a piece of jewellery as opposed to a necessity. Real designer evening handbags are available in many designs which included crochet, embroidered, silk, lace, beaded, satin, sequins, velvet and jewel-encrusted designs which made to match any type of outfit you may have on. With some diligent searching you will most certainly find the perfect match for your evening.

Things to consider when looking for a good designer handbag for traveling purposes:

The number one factor to consider is safety when looking for a travel bag. This is not only referring to the safety of the people you are travelling with or yourself, but also the safe keeping of your passport, travel documents, personal belongings and currency. A travel designer handbag should contain your most valued travel items such as credit cards, passport, hotel key, traveler checks and other forms of travel ID. A travel handbag should be designed with strong, secure straps, inner storage and magnetic or zippered closures. A good number of vacation travelers will even carry a money pouch hidden beneath their clothes to further deter would-be thieves.

Tips for spotting real designer handbags before buying them:

In large metropolitan fashion capitals such as Paris, London, LA, New York, Madrid or Toronto it may seem like it would be simple to find an authentic handbag but looks can be deceiving. Unfortunately, the uncontrolled sale of fake handbags is an easy profit for street sellers and flea market merchants who really do not care who they victimize to make some quick cash. If you have bought a designer brand name handbag in any of these cities from a street vendor, chances are that it is not an original. The actual location of the sale should the first red flag you should be aware of when trying to spot an authentic designer handbag. Some quick tips on spotting fake merchandise:

1. Take a really close look at the design. You should get some sense that it is not real just by looking at it. If you think about it, the high end designer make high quality handbags so you can usually spot bad quality imitations just by looking at them. Check the inner stitching and smell or feel the material. A real designer handbag will appear almost near perfect. The colors of the bag will be consistent, the inner lining and the stitching will be free of any visible flaws. Furthermore, an engraved or imprinted designer brand logo should be visible somewhere on or inside the handbag itself.

2. Request proof of authentication such as receipts or serial numbers. The most expensive designer handbags are always accompanied authenticity cards. The authenticity card will showcase the company brand logo and usually include some sort of serial number or a magnetic strip registered to the actual designer itself. Make sure that you ask to see these important pieces of information before you decide to buy it.

3. If the price is too good to be true, it usually is. If a brand name handbag were that cheap every person on the street would own one.

Choosing the appropriate authentic designer handbag is not rocket science but there are crucial matters that one needs to consider before purchasing one. Now that you have some adequate knowledge of finding the right luxury designer handbags for your ever increasing wardrobe go out and buy one. Just keep in mind that there are proper real designer handbags for all types of life real life situations.